Road building has begun after the invention of the wheel and roads. With the development, the demand for road connectivity has become high. With the advance technology and inventions now you can see road construction machines which are capable of doing complex tasks.
Roads play a significant role in developing a country’s economy. To become the most developing country India must have road construction. Indian infrastructure is witnessing rapid growth in recent time.
Some of the road construction machines commonly and widely used are as follows:
- Crawler excavator
- Motor grader
- Road roller
- Asphalt mixing plant
- Wheel loader
- Backhoe loader
The major machine used in road construction is Motor grader which is also known as Road Grader. It is a self-propelled machine having an adjustable blade. This is a type of equipment used in construction especially for the construction of roads.
Graders are mainly used to level the soil surface. A horizontal blade is present in between its front and rear wheels. This blade can be adjusted to meet certain angles to create a flat surface. In some instances, graders can be used for underground mining.
Road Graders are also used to remove snow or dirt from the roads, to flatten the surface of the soil before laying the asphalt layer, to remove unnecessary soil layer from the ground, etc. it is designed especially for road construction. It performs tasks like leveling a rough surface, grading, trenching, spreading dumped materials and creating smooth roads. Also used in mines to maintain the rough and unpaved roads.
Graders are widely used in urban engineering set up for the construction of roads, demolition of small houses, road repair, etc. graders are mainly used for road construction and maintenance of dirt roads, road repair and gravel roads.
The grader consists three axles I.e., one with the engine at the top, the rear axles at one end of the vehicle and the third axle is at the front end of the vehicle having the blade in between. They are used to prepare the base in the construction of paved roads to create a wide flat surface for the asphalt. Asphalt is a black, sticky and viscous liquid or semi-solid form, of petroleum used in road infrastructure.
Some use graders for the falling process of the paved roads. The size of the different graders varies and to have various types. Graders are most extensively used in the process of road construction, road repairing and in the mining industry. These are available in different shapes and sizes but the specifications remain the same.
Generally, it is categorized by the long blade attached between the front and the back tires. For this blade, the application has given the name ‘grader’. These machines are perfect for grading tasks.
A Motor Grader generally consists of the following:
- a blade which is used to flatten the surface during grading for road construction. It can be adjusted accordingly
- most of the graders have tandem axles
- it has a feature like a 90-degree rotation of blades
- it consists of optional attachment called ripper, which helps in digging up
- to break the larger heaps and spread the materials faster it has another optional attachments called dozer. Dozer is also used for clearing boulders from the road.
There are other heavy construction equipment for road infrastructure and Road Grader is one of the heavy equipment which is very different while operating it.
A Road grading task is very different and to do the job even the experts must keep so many things in mind. The grader is a bit difficult as this equipment is very versatile and used to perform multiple tasks. Its is also used in mixing asphalt and grading shoulders.
While operating the motor graders one must follow the tips given below:
- while operating the grader, the materials should be moved regularly or else it can cause damage
- compaction makes trimming easier
- you should get familiar with the blade movements
- you can use loose blade for spreading loose materials or spreading
- you can use tight blade for reshaping an area
- you should know about the moldboard that can be lifted from both sides in case of surface needs to be sloped
In the road infrastructure the motor grader is used for grading the road and the process are:
- Before starting the grading process, the road must be made wet using water from a water tank. For wetting the road in need of moisture there must be good drainage system. And must keep in mind that the curves should have super elevation and should be in straight sections.
- In case of the straight road, the wear surface should be rise at about three per cent slope from the shoulder. An incline having six per cent slope down to the inside of the corner needs to flatten the curved roads. To keep the surface straight the cutting edges should be trimmed with a torch.
- Avoid wear opt the button of the moldboard. The cutting edges should be dragged along the surface in case of sry and hard road surface. It should be set at about 90 degrees to the surface.
- The soil and road type as well as the right way should be considered in case of ditches. You should be careful about the rule that it should be about five centimeters or two inches lower than the wear surface of the road.
- Before starting the grading process, the right speed and moldboard angle should be chosen. With the help of moldboard angles between 10-45 degrees you can make a smooth motion.
- The loose materials should be filled into the pothole and you should cut straight to the depth of the pothole.
- Grading road with the motor grader is not an easy task to do and also not all the graders operates the same function. White operating with the grader you should start slow and understand the job.